### GUITAR prediction of He4 Abundance in the Universe

The Big Bang theory claims the calculation of He4 abundance in the universe as one of the three pillars supporting the BB theory. They further claim that virtually all of the He4 in the universe was synthesised within the first 3 minutes of the Big Bang, and that He4 synthesised during thermal nuclear reactions in stars does not constitute a significant amount.

Nothing could be further from truth. The existence of supernova explosions along tells you that a significant stars could exhaust almost all hydrogen and synthesised a big portion of He4 by the time of supernova erruption.

I will show here how the correct amount of abundance of He4 in the universe can be obtained from thermal nuclear processes in stars, therefore leaving zero percent of He4 to be explained by the BigBang.

I will start with the same g factor I derived a while ago, which was used to obtain the correct baryon density, the correct CMB temperature, and the correct solar radiation constant. Basically:

g = (2/PI)*sqrt(alpha), alpha = fine structure constant.

We know:

(Baryon density)/(Critical density) = g = 5.4383%

(CMB energy density)/(Critical density) = g^3/PI = g^2/PI * 5.4383%

So the ratio of radiation energy (CMB) to luminant mass (baryon density) is

g^2/PI = (4/PI^3)*alpha

Now, let's start with all hydrogens, and allow a certain percentage (p) of hydrogen to synthesis into He4. During this process a certain amount of mass turns into the energy. Let see how much that amount is.

The thermal nuclear process goes like 4 hydrogens turn into one He4 plus some energy release. Look up the atomic weight of Hydrogen and He4:

Hydrogen: 1.008

He4: 4.0026

The loss of mass, which is converted into energy, during this process is:

Delta E = Delta M = 1.008 * 4 - 4.0026 = 0.0294

Compare this mass change (energy release) with the mass of hydrogen:

0.0294/(4 * 1.008) = 0.007292

Please note how extremely that ratio is close to alpha (1/137.036). Actually it should be exactly alpha if it were not for the uncertainty of atomic weights.

So when hydrogen is turned into He4, alpha of the total mass is turned into energy.

Half of that energy will be carried away by the neutrino, and the other half released as radiation. So

(P: Percentage of Hydrogen converted) * 0.5 * alpha = CMB/Baryon

(P/2)*alpha = g^2/PI = (4/PI^3)*alpha

Therefore we get p, which is the percentage of Hydrogen converted into He, which is also the He abundance in the universe:

(P/2) = 4/PI^3

P = (2/PI)^3

P = 25.8%

So we obtained He abundance of 25.8%, which agrees perfectly with the observed value of one quarter.

This falsifies the Big Bang completely, just as the star radiation energy falsifies CMB as Big Bang remains. The problem is we **KNOW** thermal nuclear reactions happen in stars. So stars do radiate the right amount of energy for CMB, as well as generate the right amount of He4 in the process to account for the 1/4 He4 abundance.

The problem for Big Bang is we have to attribute 100% of the observed amount of He4 as generated by stars, that leaves no He4 to be generated in the first 3 minutes of Big Bang. Like wise we have to attribute 100% of CMB energy to star radiation energy, which again leaves 0% to be atrributed as remains of Big Bang.

And the third pillar of Big Bang, the Hubble redshift, has successfully been explained as the universal relativity, due to limited and closed spacetime of the universe. So that's a complete success on the GUITAR part and complete failure of the Big Bang model.

This absolutely is NOT numerology! The g was exactly derived from first principle in GUITAR, when I have time I will show exactly where that (2/PI) factor came from, and the same g is used to obtain baryon density, CMB temperature, solar radiation constant, and He4 abundance. The same g = (2/PI)*sqrt(alpha)!

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